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Zeitgeist Addendum02.swf

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Flash #241691

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Text
A number of years ago,

the central bank of the United States,

the Federal Reserve,

produced a document entitled "Modern Money Mechanics".

A Workbook on Bank Reserves and Deposit Expansion

Federal Reserve Bank of Chicago

Modern Money Mechanics

Cumulative expansion in deposits on
basis of 10,000 of new reserves and
reserve requirements of 10 percent

Expansion Stages

final

0

13

14

15

Thus through stage after stage of expansion, "money" can
grow to a total of 10 times the new reserves supplied to the
banking system as the new deposits created by loans at each
stage are added to those created at all earlier stages and
those supplied by the initial reserve-creating action.

100,000

80,000

60,000

40,000

20,000

Initial
deposits

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

11

12

18

19

20

16

17

This publication detailed the institutionalized

practice of money creation,

as utilized by the Federal Reserve

and the web of global commercial banks it supports.

On the opening page, the document states its objective:

The purpose of this booklet is to describe the
basic process of money creation in a
"fractional reserve" banking system. The
approach taken illustrates the changes in
bank balance sheets that occur when deposits
in banks change as a result of monetary
action by the Federal Reserve System - the
central bank of the United States. The
relationships shown are based on simplifying
assumptions. For the sake of simplicity, the
relationships are shown as if they were
mechanical, but they are not, as is described
later in the booklet. Thus, they should not be
interpreted to imply a close and predictable
relationship between a specific central bank
transaction and the quantity of money.

Money is such a routine part of everyday
living that its existence and acceptance
ordinarily are taken for granted. A user may
sense that money must come into being either
automatically as a result of economic activity
or as an outgrowth of some government
operation. But just how this happens all too
often remains a mystery.
What Is Money?
If money is viewed simply as a tool used to
facilitate transactions, only those media that
are readily accepted in exchange for goods,
services, and other assets need to be
considered. Many things - from stones to
baseball cards - have served this monetary
function throughout the ages. Today, in the
United States, money used in transactions is

"The Purpose of this booklet is to describe

the basic process of money creation

in a fractional reserve banking system".

It then proceeds to describe this 'fractional reserve process'

through various banking terminology.

A translation of which goes something like this:

The United States Government decides

it needs some money,

so it calls up the Federal Reserve,

E

R

S

V

F

L

A

T

D

U

N

I

M

Y

and requests, say, "10 billion dollars".

10 BILLION?

The fed replies, saying " sure…

WE'LL BUY BONDS

we'll buy 10 billion in government bonds from you."

So, the government takes some piece of paper,

THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA

E

D

P

A

R

T

M

N

O

F

U

H

S

Y

1789

UNITED STATES BOND

SERIES EE

C000000000EE

00000000000

000090007004

paints some official looking designs on them,

and calls them 'Treasury Bonds'.

Then, it puts a value on these Bonds

to the sum of 10 billion dollars,

10 BILLION

and sends them over to the Fed.

In turn, the people at the Fed

FW H 57

WASHINGTON, D.C.

L1180916G

12

FEDERAL RESERVE NOTE

ONE DOLLAR

L

F

E

D

R

A

L

S

V

B

N

K

C

I

O

THIS NOTE IS LEGAL TENDER
FOR ALL DEBTS PUBLIC AND PRIVATE

Treasurer of the United States.

ONE

draw up a bunch of impressive pieces of paper themselves,

only this time calling them 'Federal Reserve Notes'

…also designating a value of 10 billion dollars to the set.

The Fed then takes these notes and trades them for the Bonds.

Once this exchange is complete,

the government then takes the 10 billion

in Federal Reserve Notes and deposits it into a bank account…

and upon this deposit, the paper notes officially become

'legal tender' money, adding 10 billion to the US money supply.

$

+ $10 BILLION

And there it is… 10 billion in new money has been created.

Of course, this example is a generalization,

for, in reality, this transaction would occur electronically,

FEDERAL RESERVE BANK

C:/CREATE :$10,000,000,000.00

C:/ MONEY CREATION COMPLETE

with no paper used at all.

In fact only 3% of the US money supply

ONE hundred dollars

A3 77665544 B

E5

FEDERAL RESERVE NOTE

SERIES
2008

A

100

UNITED STATES
OF AMERICA

THE

3%=
PHYSICAL MONEY

exists in physical currency.

100110100110100110100110

The other 97% essentially exists in computers alone.

97% OF ALL MONEY

IS NOW DIGITAL

Now, Government bonds are,

by design, instruments of Debt

and when the Fed purchases these bonds,

with money it essentially created out of thin air,

A

C

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R

E

M

F

O

S

T

D

N

U

H

five

E

T

O

N

V

R

S

L

A

D

F

FIVE

B07888446F

FIVE DOLLARS

the government is actually promising

LOAN

to pay back that money to the Fed.

In other words… The money was created out of debt.

This mind numbing paradox of how money,

?

MONEY = DEBT

or value, can be created out of debt,

or a liability, will become more clear as we further this exercise.

So, the exchange has been made and now 10 billion

DEPOSIT ONE

C:/$10,000,000,000.00

[ DEPOSIT COMPLETE ]

dollars sits in a commercial bank account.

Here is where it gets really interesting,

for as based on the Fractional Reserve practice,

C:/transforming deposit to reserve

that 10 billion dollar deposit instantly

.....................................

[ DEPOSIT is now reserve ]

becomes part of the bank's Reserves,

just as all deposits do.

And regarding reserve requirements,

as stated in Modern money mechanics:

demand, a considerable amount of currency and
funds on deposit with the central bank. The bank
must be prepared to convert deposit money into
currency for those depositors who request
currency. It must make remittance on checks
written by depositors and presented for payment
by other banks (settle adverse clearings). Finally,
it must maintain legally required reserves, in the
form of vault cash and/or balances at its Federal
Reserve Bank, equal to a prescribed percentage
of its deposits.
The public's demand for currency varies greatly,
but generally follows a seasonal pattern that is
quite predictable. The effects on bank funds of
these variations in the amount of currency held
by the public usually are offset by the central
bank, which replaces the reserves absorbed by
currency withdrawals from banks. (Just how this
is done will be explained later.) For all banks
taken together, there is no net drain of funds
through clearings. A check drawn on one bank
normally will be deposited to the credit of
another account, if not in the same bank, then in
some other bank.
These operating needs influence the minimum
amount of reserves an individual bank will hold
voluntarily. However, as long as this minimum
amount is less than what is legally required,
operating needs are of relatively minor
importance as a restraint on aggregate deposit
expansion in the banking system. Such
expansion cannot continue beyond the point
where the amount of reserves that all banks have
is just sufficient to satisfy legal requirements
under our "fractional reserve" system. For
example, if reserves of 20 percent were required,
deposits could expand only until they were five
times as large as reserves. Reserves of $10
million could support deposits of $50 million.
The lower the percentage requirement, the
greater the deposit expansion that can be
supported by each additional reserve dollar.
Thus, the legal reserve ratio together with the
dollar amount of bank reserves are the factors
that set the upper limit to money creation.
What Are Bank Reserves?
Currency held in bank vaults may be counted as
legal reserves as well as deposits (reserve
balances) at the Federal Reserve Banks. Both are
equally acceptable in satisfaction of reserve
requirements. A bank can always obtain reserve
balances by sending currency to its Reserve

Although reserve accounts are used as working
balances, each bank must maintain, on the
average for the relevant reserve maintenance
period, reserve balances at the Reserve Bank and
vault cash which together are equal to its
required reserves, as determined by the amount
of its deposits in the reserve computation period.
Where Do Bank Reserves Come From?
Increases or decreases in bank reserves can
result from a number of factors discussed later in
this booklet. From the standpoint of money
creation, however, the essential point is that the
reserves of banks are, for the most part,
liabilities of the Federal Reserve Banks, and net
changes in them are largely determined by
actions of the Federal Reserve System. Thus, the
Federal Reserve, through its ability to vary both
the total volume of reserves and the required
ratio of reserves to deposit liabilities, influence
banks' decisions with respect to their assets and
deposits.
One of the major responsibilities of the Federal
Reserve System is to provide the total amount of
reserves consistent with the monetary needs of
the economy at reasonably stable prices. Such
actions take into consideration, of course, any
changes in the pace at which money is being
used and changes in the publics demands for
cash balances.
The reader should be mindful that deposits and
reserves tend to expand simultaneously and that
the Federal Reserve's control often is exerted
through the marketplace as individual banks find
it either cheaper or more expensive to obtain
their required reserves, depending on the
willingness of the Fed to support the current rate
of credit and deposit expansion.
While an individual bank can obtain reserves by
bidding them away from other banks, this cannot
be done by the banking system as a whole.
Except for reserves borrowed temporarily from
the Federal Reserve's discount window, as is
shown later, the supply of reserves in the
banking system is controlled by the Federal
Reserve.
Moreover, a given increase in bank reserves is
not necessarily accomplished by an expansion in
money equal to the theoretical potential based on
the required ratio of reserves to deposits. What
happens to the quantity of money will vary,
depending upon the reactions of the banks and
the public. A number of slippages may occur.

A bank must maintain legally required reserves,

equal to a prescribed percentage of its deposits.

it then quantifies this by stating:

If the process ended here, there would be no
"multiple" expansion, i.e., deposits and bank
reserves would have changed by the same amount.
However, banks are required to maintain reserves
equal to only a fraction of their deposits. Reserves
in excess of this amount may be used to increase
earning assets - loans and investments. Unused or
excess reserves earn no interest. Under current
regulations, the reserve requirement against most
transaction accounts is 10 percent. Assuming, for
simplicity, a uniform 10 percent reserve requirement
against all transaction deposits, and further
assuming that all banks attempt to remain fully
invested, we can not trace the process of expansion
in deposits which can take place on the basis of the
additional reserves provided by the Federal Reserve
System's purchase of U.S. government securities.
The expansion process may or may not begin with
Bank A, depending on what the dealer does with the
money received from the sale of securities. If the
dealer immediately writes checks for $10,000 and
all of them are deposited in other banks, Bank A
loses both deposits and reserves and shows no net
change as a result of the System's open market
purchase.

3Dollar amounts used in the various illustrations do not necessarily
bear any resemblance to actual transactions. For example, open
market operations typically are conducted with many dealers and in
amounts totaling several billion dollars.
4Indeed, many transactions today are accomplished through an
electronic transfer of funds between accounts rather than through
issuance of a paper check. Apart from the timing of posting, the
accounting entries are the same whether a transfer is made with a
paper check or electronically. The term "check" therefore, is used for
both types of transfers.
5For each bank, the reserve requirement is 3 percent on a specified
base amount of transaction accounts and 10 percent on the amount
above this "low reserve tranche" - at $25 million, and provided for it
to change annually in line with the growth in transaction deposits
nationally. The low reserve tranche was $41.1 million in 1991 and
$42.2 million in 1992. The GarrSt. Germain Act of 1982 further
modified these requirements by exempting the first $2 million of
reservable liabilities from reserve requirements. Like the low reserve
tranche, the exempt level is adjusted each year to reflect growth in
reservable liabilities. The exempt level was $3.4 million in 1991 and
$3.6 million in 1992.

"Under current regulations, the reserve requirement against

most transaction accounts is 10%."

C:/ deposit \ reserve :$10,000,000,000.00

$10,000,000,000.00
$1,000,000,000.00

10% *                                    =


[ "required" ]

This means that with a ten billion dollar deposit,

10% or 1 billion is held as the required reserve,

-

$9,000,000,000.00

while the other 9 billion is considered an excessive reserve

[ "EXCESSIVE" ]

and can be used as the basis for new loans.

Now, it is logical to assume that this

10

DEPOSIT:

LOAN:

BILLION

0

9 billion is literally coming out of the existing

9

1

8

2

7

3

6

4

5

10 billion dollar deposit.

However, this is actually not the case.

What really happens is that the 9 billion

$9,000,000,000

is simply created out of thin air,

$10,000,000,000

on top of the existing 10 billion dollar deposit.

$19,000,000,000

This is how the money supply is expanded.

As stated in Modern Money Mechanics:

It does not really matter where this money is at any
given time. The important fact is that these deposits do
not disappear. They are in some deposit accounts at all
times. All banks together have $10,000 of deposits and
reserves that they did not have before. However, they
are not required to keep $10,000 of reserves against the
$10,000 of deposits. All they need to retain, under a 10
percent reserve requirement, is $1,000. The remaining
$9,000 is "excess reserves." This amount can be loaned
or invested. See illustration 2.
If business is active, the banks with excess reserves
probably will have opportunities to loan the $9,000. Of
course, they do not really pay out loans from the
money they receive as deposits. If they did this, no
additional money would be created. What they do
when they make loans is to accept promissory notes in
exchange for credits to the borrower's transaction
accounts. Loans (assets) and deposits (liabilities) both
rise by $9,000. Reserves are unchanged by the loan
transactions. But the deposit credits constitute new
additions to the total deposits of the banking system.
See illustration 3.

"Of course, they (the banks) do not really pay out loans

from the money they receive as deposits.

If they did this, no additional money would be created.

What they do when they make loans

is to accept promissory notes (loan contracts)

CONTRACT

In exchange for credits (money)

MONEY

MONEY

to the borrower's transaction accounts."

In other words, the 9 billion can be created out of nothing,

simply because there is a demand for such a loan,

LOAN DEMAND

and that there is a 10 billion dollars deposit

RESERVE

to satisfy the reserve requirements.

D

E

T

A

R

C

Y

N

O

M

W

Now, let's assume that somebody walks into this bank

and borrows the newly available 9 billion dollars

They will then most likely take that money

and deposit it into their own bank account.

DEPOSIT TWO

The process then repeats,

for that deposit becomes part of the banks reserves,

C:/ DEPOSIT \ RESERVE :$9,000,000,000.00

10% *                                     =

$9,000,000,000.00

10% is isolated and in turn 90% of the 9 billion

or 8.1 billion is now available as

- $900,000,000.00

$8,100,000,000.00

newly created money for more loans.

DEPOSIT THREE

10% *

=

And, of course, that 8.1 can be loaned out and redeposited

- $810,000,000.00

$7,290,000,000.00

creating an additional 7.2 billion…

DEPOSIT FOUR

$7,290,000,000.00 =
-  $729,000,000.00

to 6.5 billion...

$6,561,000,000.00

DEPOSIT FIVE

to 5.9 billion etc.

$6,561,000,000.00 =
-  $656,100,000.00

$5,904,900,000.00

DEPOSIT MONEY CREATION / LOAN CYCLE

This deposit-money creation-loan cycle

RESERVE
BASED LOANS

EXPANSION OF
THE MONEY SUPPLY

10,000,000,000
19,000,000,000
27,000,000,000
34,390,000,000
40,951,000,000
46,856,000,000
52,170,000,000
56,953,000,000
61,258,000,000
65,132,000,000
...........

10,000,000,000
9,000,000,000
8,100,000,000
7,290,000,000
6,561,000,000
5,904,900,000
5,314,410,000
4,782,969,000
4,304,672,100
3,874,204,890
...........

can technically go on to infinity…

the average mathematical result is that about 90 billion dollars

$

$9

$90

$90,0

$90,00

$90,000

$90,000,

$90,000,0

$90,000,00

$90,000,000

$90,000,000,

$90,000,000,0

$90,000,000,00

$90,000,000,000
c

$90,000,000,000
ca

$90,000,000,000
can

$90,000,000,000
can b

$90,000,000,000
can be

$90,000,000,000
can be c

$90,000,000,000
can be cr

$90,000,000,000
can be cre

$90,000,000,000
can be crea

$90,000,000,000
can be creat

$90,000,000,000
can be create

can be created on top of the original 10 billion.

$90,000,000,000
can be created

$90,000,000,000
can be created f

$90,000,000,000
can be created fr

$90,000,000,000
can be created fro

$90,000,000,000
can be created from

$90,000,000,000
can be created from
$

$90,000,000,000
can be created from
$1

$90,000,000,000
can be created from
$10

$90,000,000,000
can be created from
$10,

$90,000,000,000
can be created from
$10,0

$90,000,000,000
can be created from
$10,00

$90,000,000,000
can be created from
$10,000

$90,000,000,000
can be created from
$10,000,

$90,000,000,000
can be created from
$10,000,0

$90,000,000,000
can be created from
$10,000,00

$90,000,000,000
can be created from
$10,000,000

$90,000,000,000
can be created from
$10,000,000,

$90,000,000,000
can be created from
$10,000,000,0

$90,000,000,000
can be created from
$10,000,000,00

$90,000,000,000
can be created from
$10,000,000,000

In other words, for every deposit that

9

9 x

9 x a

9 x an

9 x any

9 x any d

9 x any de

9 x any dep

9 x any depo

9 x any depos

9 x any deposit

9 x any deposit
a

9 x any deposit
am

ever occurs in the banking system,

9 x any deposit
amo

9 x any deposit
amou

9 x any deposit
amoun

9 x any deposit
amount

9 x any deposit
amount c

9 x any deposit
amount ca

9 x any deposit
amount can

9 x any deposit
amount can b

9 x any deposit
amount can be

9 x any deposit
amount can be c

9 x any deposit
amount can be cr

9 x any deposit
amount can be cre

9 x any deposit
amount can be crea

9 x any deposit
amount can be creat

9 x any deposit
amount can be create

9 x any deposit
amount can be created

9 x any deposit
amount can be created
o

9 x any deposit
amount can be created
ou

9 x any deposit
amount can be created
out

9 x any deposit
amount can be created
out o

9 x any deposit
amount can be created
out of

9 x any deposit
amount can be created
out of t

9 x any deposit
amount can be created
out of th

9 x any deposit
amount can be created
out of thi

9 x any deposit
amount can be created
out of thin

about 9 times that amount can be created out of thin air.

9 x any deposit
amount can be created
out of thin a

9 x any deposit
amount can be created
out of thin ai

9 x any deposit
amount can be created
out of thin air

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Created: 24/8 -2021 06:09:00 Last modified: 24/8 -2021 06:09:00 Server time: 28/05 -2022 22:26:09